What is Hernia
Hernias occur due to a bulge coming out of the abdomen (usually the large intestine, small intestine and fat layer of the omentum) to the outside of the abdomen which is lined with a thin membrane that forms a sac or sec hernia. It is known to the general public as a tidal wave because this bulge is visible and sometimes not visible. Types of hernias include:
- Inguinal hernia
- Femoral hernia
- Umbilical hernia
- Incisional hernia
- Epigastric hernia
- Hiatal hernia
Inguinal hernia, it occurs in the crotch and 75% of hernia problems are caused by inguinal hernia. Men are more likely to face this problem than women. This inguinal hernia consists of two types, namely direct inguinal hernia (direct) and indirect inguinal hernia (indirect). Direct inguinal hernia occurs in areas where the abdominal wall is somewhat less thick. It usually does not protrude into the scrotum. These direct hernias are more likely to occur in middle -aged and elderly people. This indirect inguinal hernia occurs as a result of a bulge coming out through the path that was once traversed by the testis (penis) during development in the early fetal stage. Sometimes this lump comes out into the testicular sac. Usually this type of hernia occurs at a young age. The symptoms of inguinal hernia are:-
- A lump in one part of the pubic bone (kana or kirai). These lumps are clearly visible when standing or coughing.
- Pain in the lump.
- Pain and discomfort in the crotch especially when bending over, coughing or lifting things.
- Feeling of pressure and weakness in the crotch.
- Pain and swelling around the testicles.
Incisional hernia occurs due to a cut in the abdomen during surgery. It causes the area of this slice container to become weak. Slit hernias can occur on this weak part. it can occur in 2% – 10% after abdominal surgery. These patients often experience large bulges around the surgical scar. Usually the surgery has to be done again where the abdominal lining is tightened with a mesh to prevent the hernia from recurring. Usually this surgery is a little difficult to perform due to the effects of previous surgery where intestinal injury can occur. Among the symptoms of an incision hernia are as follows:-
- Bumps in the surgical area (incisions)
- Pain or warmth in the bulge area
- Pain or discomfort in the abdomen especially in the hernia area
- Faster heartbeat than usual
The femoral canal is the canal through which the blood vessels of the arteries, veins and femoral nerves exit from the abdomen to the thighs. Usually this duct is tight and dense, but sometimes it becomes large to allow the contents of the abdomen to protrude into the duct. A femoral hernia causes a bulge in the lower part of the crotch fold, in the middle area of the thigh. It usually occurs in women and is more risky where it cannot be ruled out due to the narrow femoral tunnel and often having to undergo surgery to treat the problem. The symptoms of this femoral hernia indicate that the disease is dangerous and severe:-
- Severe abdominal pain
- Nausea and vomiting
- Sudden pain in the crotch
This hernia is caused when the contents in the abdomen come out between the two layers of the abdomen, namely the rectus muscle (rectus abdominal) and the lateral oblique muscles. Usually this hernia is rarely heard because it does not happen often. However, this hernia usually occurs in men over 50 years old. It occurs due to weakness in the abdominal lining due to surgery or prolonged physical stress on the abdomen. It differs from an incision hernia in terms of location and is difficult to identify.
This hernia is a lump that occurs in the umbilical cord. This occurs where the contents of the abdomen such as intestines or omentum fat protrude out into the abdominal lining of the umbilical cord. Usually this hernia occurs in children but can occur in adults. This hernia can be painful and if the patient vomits during this lump it means that there is already an obstruction in the intestine and surgery needs to be done. This umbilical cord hernia is more pronounced in people with obesity.
A hiatus hernia occurs when part of the abdomen bulges upwards through the diaphragm into the chest cavity. The diaphragm is a layer of muscle that helps you breathe. This type of hernia also usually occurs in people aged 50 years and above. The symptoms of a hiatus hernia are:
- Acid reflux
- Hard to swallow
- Difficulty breathing
- Chest or stomach pain
- Vomit blood
- Black shit
FACTORS THAT CAUSE HERNIA
Hernias usually occur due to increased pressure in the abdominal cavity which can cause a bulge to come out of the abdomen and contribute to the hernia. Among the factors are
- Lifting heavy objects or weight lifting activities
- Prolonged cough like chronic lung disease
- Strain during defecation or urination
- There is fluid in the abdominal cavity or ascites
SIGNS OF HERNIA
The main symptom is a sudden lump arising in the thighs, inguinal or in the effects of surgical scars. It will arise and disappear completely like tidal angina, some of these lumps will not go away and when this happens, the patient will complain of pain. If the hernia sac contains a small or large intestine, the patient will experience “intestinal obstruction” and will experience bloating. This condition forced the patient to undergo surgery to prevent a leaky bowel. Some come with severe symptoms and signs such as a painful (incarcerated) lump. The outer skin may appear blackish red and the patient may have a fever. This is due to the contents of the bulge as the intestine has suffered a lack of blood supply due to constriction (squeezing) of blood vessels usually in the opening of the hernia. It is known as a strangulated hernia and requires immediate surgery to prevent the bowel from blackening or ischemia.
ACTIVITIES NOT RECOMMENDED FOR HERNIA PATIENTS
- Avoid activities that can put pressure on the abdomen such as coughing, lifting heavy objects and straining
- Use an ice pack on the area of the bump that is inflamed, reddened or painful.
- Drink ginger water to get rid of wind or bloating that may occur due to high tide.
- Work out with light exercise such as walking, jogging or swimming.
- Avoid strenuous exercise such as weight lifting.
- Lose weight if you are overweight (obesity)
- Eat lots of fibrous foods to prevent constipation.
- Eat in small quantities at a time.
FOODS TO AVOID
Among the types of food that should be avoided:-
- Foods made up of refined carbohydrates. Refined carbohydrates are processed foods that are very low or no fiber. These types of foods increase your risk of constipation. Examples of refined foods are white bread, pasta, white rice or cakes made from wheat flour.
- Spicy and tomato -based foods. Such foods can cause acid reflux.
- Fried foods can also cause acid reflux.
- Drink carbonated.
- Caffeinated beverages.
Umbilical hernias are most common in infants. About 10% to 20% of newborns develop an umbilical hernia. This type of hernia also occurs in babies born prematurely or low birth weight. An umbilical hernia occurs near the navel as a result of the muscles in the area of the umbilical cord opening not being closed properly causing part of the intestine to bulge out. You can see this lump more clearly when your baby cries or coughs. Usually, this umbilical hernia does not cause pain. However, if your child shows symptoms such as vomiting, pain or swelling in the area of the bulge, seek treatment immediately. An umbilical hernia will usually heal on its own when the child reaches the age of 1 or 2 years. If, however, the hernia still does not go away after this child is 5 years old, surgery may be needed.